Research in the field of science is different from other forms of studies. It is more objective, always has an element of experiment and must necessarily prove something at the conclusion. When taking up a science research project, scholars have to be very sure about the variables they are going to use and the methods which will lead them to the results. Be it medicine, astronomy or any other branch of science, the elements used for research remain more or less the same.
A scientific study must start with generalization, going from a broad outlook to a narrower one. For forming the general view, researchers must observe or measure the related subject of research. This part of the study is dealt with in the introduction, where a context is built for the research. Then the author has to define the research problem. A problem statement is written, which focuses on the central issue to be handled by the research. It is closely related to the objective and goal of the study and in a way states what the study wants to achieve. A clear problem statement is critical for finding workable solutions.
Forming of hypothesis is the next element. The null hypothesis is mostly used by scientific researchers, where they try to disprove a theory or notion, instead of trying to prove something. Then the variables that will be used in research are identified. These variables can be independent and dependent.
An experiment is conducted, which relates to the variables. In the experimental stage, some variables are manipulated and controlled, and the corresponding change in dependent variables is measured. Presence of a control group and certain pretest and posttest scenarios are essential features of experimental studies. The experimental study is used to find a causal relationship between the variables. Making provisions for a successful experiment is important. A pilot study can also be conducted to become familiar with the procedures, probable faults and requirements of the experiment.
Along with experiment, data is also collected. Some data might be available from the experiment itself. Sampling for such studies is mostly done on random basis. The pertinent data is analyzed using quantitative tests. From such analysis, conclusions are drawn, which can be generalized if there are no restricting conditions. Knowing the various elements and methods of scientific research is important for all scholars pursuing such studies.